我们希望提供这样的儿童建筑启蒙教育
Five Principles in Designing Educational Architecture Curriculum for Children
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情境化 Children-Friendly

遵循儿童认知发展水平的学习场景。

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趣味性 Play-Based Active Learning

在游戏中促进主动式学习。

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创造性 Creative Thinking

循序渐进地培养设计思维。

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艺术性 Aesthetic Readability

输出审美原则和设计要素。

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通识课 Collaborative and Cross-Cultural

以世界建筑历史和文化为认知载体,培养公民意识。

构建“能力”、 “概念”、“内容”三位一体的3C体系
A Scaffold System Consists of ‘Competency’,‘Concepts’,‘Contents’

书新堂提出儿童建筑课程的五大设计原则,并构建了“能力”、“概念”、“内容”三位一体的脚手架体系。“能力”是根据3~6岁儿童早期发展核心标准及6~12岁国家课程标准拟定的综合教学目标;“概念”是在成就“能力”的过程中不断累积的认知基础,以国际建筑师协会儿童建造环境教育网络拟定的《建造环境教育指南》为框架,涉及多个学科的知识架构;“内容”则是支撑“概念”形成及“能力”拓展的教学方法及内容。

SHUXINTANG proposes five principles in designing educational architecture curriculum for children, and establishes a scaffolding system consisting of ‘competency’, ‘concept’ and ‘content’. COMPETENCY means comprehensive objectives based on the core standards of early childhood development of children aged 3~6 and the national curriculum standards for children aged 6-12. CONCEPT means the cumulative cognitive foundations in the process of mental and hands-on practices. The conceptual framework has been mainly developed from the UIA Built Environment Education Guidelines. CONTENT means the learning methods and contexts designed to support the formation of concepts and achieving competency.

能力

观察力

身体意识及精细动作

语言及视觉交流

数概念

空间概念

时间概念

比较和归类

基于调查、实验、探索和发现的创造性表达

跨文化学习

决策及应用

情感及道德

概念

Part I 设计品质

材料与形式

结构与安全

建造过程

Part II 历史与现代化

居住与房屋

城市规划

科技与创造

Part III 生活与决策

经济与生态

社会需求

公众参与

内容

社交与情感发展

身体发展

语言及交流

空间概念

创造性艺术

科学与技术

COMPETENCY

Perception

Physical Consciousness and Fine-Moter Skills

Language and Visual Communication

Number Concept

Space Concept

Time Concept

Compare and Classification

Creative Expressions Based on Surveys, Experiments, Explorations and Discoveries

Intercultural Learning

Decision-Making and Application

Emotion and Morality

CONCEPT

Part I Design Quality

Modern Forms and Materials

Structure and Safety

Design and Construction Process

Part II Heritage and Modernity

Living and Housing

Architecture and Urban Design

Technology and Creativity

Part III Life and Decision

Economy and Ecology

Social Factors and Needs

Participation and Involvement

CONTENT

Social and Emotional Development

Physical Development

Language and Communication

Space Concept

Creative Arts

Science and Technology

设计型学习
Design-Based Learning,DBL

设计型学习作为一种教育方法论,由加州理工大学波莫纳分校的多林·尼尔森教授(Doreen Nelson)首次提出。尼尔森教授最早在美国的小学和初中开设了一门课程,叫《城市建造教育》,经过长达十年的教学研究,得出了“逆向思维的6½个步骤”。这是一种基于探究的学习形式和教学方法,它将设计思维和设计过程融入K12教育体系的课堂。

Doreen Nelson pioneered Design-Based Learning over 35 years ago with a method that produces dramatic improvement in K-12 student achievement. It reverses the emphasis from traditional rote learning to engaging students in thinking at the highest level by building physical artifacts that represent concepts in the curriculum.

“Design a never-before-seen system for moving people and products within a city.”- Doreen Nelson

传统学习方式

  • 平面的、被动的,教师是绝对权威。
  • 教师通过引导发言、讨论或分析作业来传达关于课程主题的基本信息。
  • 在连续数周或者数月,根据教学计划,在前面的基础水平之上构建更复杂的知识结构。
  • 预计学生依靠自己综合信息并发展出关于这个主题的原创观念。
  • 许多学生在进入“综合应用”这个阶段之前就失去兴趣,因为大部分信息和他们的生活没有关联。
  • 在一年中,学生会忘记所学知识的50%;在两年中,他们会忘记80%以上的知识点。

设计型学习

  • 教师呈现概念的时候,向学生提出一个基于立体社区模型的挑战,并促进学生之间做出共同的决策。
  • 教师在挑战开始时设定标准,以便完成的项目有一个评估的参考点。
  • 学生学习用便宜的材料来解决问题。
  • 为了应对在挑战过程中出现的问题,学生主动向书籍、多媒体和专业人士求助。
  • 学生与他人谈论自己的见解。
  • 通过延长时间,学生学习如何处理更复杂的组织和社会关系。 学生将他们的想法组织成模型和图表,并评估、辩论和改进他们对一个概念的思考。
  • 学生在语言,阅读,数学和其他课程科目中的技能显著提高,特别是对于低年级的学生。

Traditional Teaching

  • 2-D and passive; teacher is absolute authority.
  • Teacher conveys a basic level of information about a subject through speaking, discussion or a reading assignment.
  • In succeeding weeks and months, more complex levels of information build on the basic level, according to the lesson plan.
  • Students are supposed to synthesize information on their own and develop original ideas about the subject.
  • Many students tune out long before the “synthesis” phase, because the information has no relevance to their lives.
  • In one year, students forget 50 percent of what they’ve been taught. In two years, they forget 80 percent.

Doreen Nelson Method of DBL

  • Teacher presents concepts by posing a challenge that is based on a 3-D model of a community, and then facilitates shared decision-making.
  • Teacher sets criteria at the beginning of a challenge, so that the finished project has a reference point for evaluation.
  • Students learn to solve challenges using inexpensive materials.
  • To find answers that arise from the challenge, students consult books, other media and/or experts.
  • Students talk to one another about their ideas.
  • Over an extended period of time, students learn to deal with more complex organizations and social relationships. They learn to organize their ideas into models and charts, and to evaluate, justify and refine their thinking about a concept.
  • Student skills—in language, reading, math and other curriculum subjects—improve markedly, especially for pupils at the lower end of the scale (including (including those with learning disabilities).
相关文献
References
Design as a Catalyst for Learning

Design as a Catalyst for Learning, by MEREDITH DAVIS

Linking Architecture and Education

Linking Architecture and Education, by ANNE TAYLOR

Discipline-Based Art Education

Discipline-Based Art Education, by GETTY PUBLICATIONS

Edgar Dale

Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, by EDGAR DALE

Paley

The Boy Who Would Be A Helicopter, by VIVIAN GUSSIN PALEY

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The School I’d Like, by CATHERINE BURKE AND IAN GROSVENOR

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